Turnout figures for local authorities are even lower than reported due to sections of the ballot paper being returned either blank or incorrectly completed (informal).

16.1% of votes in 2013 DHB elections - almost 200,000 votes - were either blank or informal.

Counties Manukau DHB has the lowest effective turnout with only 28.4% of eligible voters casting valid ballots in a region which holds a population of 470,000.

Female candidates

More men named John are running for the post of Mayor than women are running for any position in 62 out of 78 councils.

Out of the 3,183 candidates running for council or community board positions, only 885 are women.

West Coast Regional Council has no female candidates in these elections, and currently has an all-male council. In terms of city councils, Tauranga performs worst with a ratio of 9.75 male candidates for every female candidate.